Hematuria (Blood in Urine)

Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. In cases of hematuria, any part of the urinary tract including the kidneys can cause blood to mix with urine.

There are two types of hematuria:

  • Gross hematuria – The blood in the urine is visible and can be seen with a naked eye.
  • Microscopic hematuria – As the name suggests, the blood in the urine is not visible to the naked eye and can only be seen under the microscope.

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Essential Facts About Hematuria

Hematuria is visible both to the naked eye and under the microscope. It affects between 2 and 30 percent of adults in any given population. Smokers and the elderly have a higher risk of developing hematuria.

Essential Facts About Hematuria

Causes of Hematuria

These are some common hematuria causes:

Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by microorganisms that enter the body making their way through the urinary tract and into the bladder.

Kidney Infection

Bacteria can enter the kidneys either via the bloodstream or the urethra.

Kidney Stones

Kidney stones occur when calcium or magnesium salt crystallize to form lumps. These lumps can vary in size, shape, texture, etc. These crystals can eventually form small hard stones. Kidney stones are often very painful.

Bladder Stones

Kidney stones are passed out the body in urine. Sometimes, the stones collect in the bladder. They become bladder stones.

Enlarged Prostate

The prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. It sits below the bladder and surrounds the urethra. When the prostate gland is enlarged, it squeezes the urethra. This affects urine flow.

Kidney Disease

If there is an inflammation of the kidneys’ filtering system, urinary bleeding occurs.

Certain Cancers

Late stage bladder, kidney or prostate cancer may cause gross urinary bleeding. Since this may be the late stages of cancer, it may be too late to treat it.

Genetic Traits

Inherited sickle cell anemia can cause urinary bleeding.

Extreme Exercise

Strenuous exercise does not often lead to visible urinary bleeding. The relationship between hematuria and strenuous exercise is still a mystery. It is speculated that it may be caused by bladder trauma, dehydration or the breaking down of red blood cells.

Athletes usually develop hematuria. However, anyone can be affected after doing some strenuous exercises.

Kidney Injury

An injury to the kidney can lead to hematuria.


Some anticancer medications are likely to cause hematuria.

Healthy Lifestyle Tips for Hematuria

Some tips for preventing hematuria include:

  • Drinking an ample amount of water every day
  • Maintaining Excellent hygiene
  • Urinating after having a sexual intercourse
  • Following a healthy diet and avoiding sodium
  • Ceasing smoking

Risk Factors for Hematuria

A few of the risk factors associated with hematuria are:

  • Men over the age of 50 are at high risk. They should frequently have a medical checkup.
  • A bacterial or viral infection may cause hematuria. The person must be on the lookout or go for a checkup from time to time.
  • Taking medication such as aspirin can lead to hematuria.

Risk Factors for Hematuria


When to See a Doctor in Atlanta for Hematuria

If you see blood or discoloration in your urine, visit a doctor immediately. Hematuria can be a sign of a more serious medical condition such as cancer or urinary tract infection.

Diagnosis of Hematuria

Hematuria tests include:

Urine Culture

A urine sample is collected and checked to see if bacteria will grow.

CT Scan

A CT scan will give an internal image of the kidneys, bladder and ureters. This will allow the doctor to determine the best possible course of action.


A flexible machine known as a cystoscope is inserted into the urethra and directed to the bladder to detect whether there are any tumors present in the bladder lining.


Sound waves are used to detect any tumors.

Treatment of Hematuria

Treatment for hematuria involves identifying and solving the underlying medical condition. If a doctor finds that there is no serious medical condition causing it, a patient does not need to be treated and can wait for the hematuria to clear up on its own.

Advanced Urology is actively monitoring the current Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. The health and well-being of our patients, staff and their families is of utmost importance to us. We will continue to follow CDC guidelines to help prevent exposure and spread of the virus. We are staying open to serve our patients in-person and offering Telehealth appointments for those that prefer to access care from home.